1 Hedegaard, H., Warner, M., & Miniño, A. M. (1999). Key findings Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Retrieved from

2 Philadelphia’s Drug Overdose Death Rate Among Highest in Nation | The Pew Charitable Trusts. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from

3 Hospital Admissions for Opioid Overdose and Opioid Use Disorder. (2018). Retrieved from

4 Center for Behavioral Health Statistics, S. (n.d.). RESULTS FROM THE 2016 NATIONAL SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH: DETAILED TABLES.

5 Burrell, T., Cahalan, C., Cimaglio, B., Dennis, M. L., Head-Dunham, R., Henggeler, S. W., … Riggs, P. D. (n.d.). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide NIDA wishes to thank the following individuals for their helpful comments during the review of this publication.

6 FACING ADDICTION IN AMERICA The Surgeon General’s Spotlight on Opioids. (n.d.).

7 The Opioid Threat in Pennsylvania. (2018). 

8 Department of Health, U., Services, H., & of the Surgeon General, O. (n.d.). FACING ADDICTION IN AMERICA The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health.

10 Scholl, L., Seth, P., Kariisa, M., Wilson, N., & Baldwin, ; Grant. (2017). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths-United States, 2013-2017. Retrieved from

11 Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages among Adolescents. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from

12 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition). (n.d.). Retrieved from

13 Cost/Benefit Research | Invest EAP. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from

14 Youth Online: High School YRBS – Pennsylvania 2017 Results | DASH | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from

15 Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved from