1 Hedegaard, H., Warner, M., & Miniño, A. M. (1999). Key findings Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db294_table.pdf#3.

2 Philadelphia’s Drug Overdose Death Rate Among Highest in Nation | The Pew Charitable Trusts. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2018/02/15/philadelphias-drug-overdose-death-rate-among-highest-in-nation

3 Hospital Admissions for Opioid Overdose and Opioid Use Disorder. (2018). Retrieved from www.phc4.org

4 Center for Behavioral Health Statistics, S. (n.d.). RESULTS FROM THE 2016 NATIONAL SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH: DETAILED TABLES.

5 Burrell, T., Cahalan, C., Cimaglio, B., Dennis, M. L., Head-Dunham, R., Henggeler, S. W., … Riggs, P. D. (n.d.). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide NIDA wishes to thank the following individuals for their helpful comments during the review of this publication.

6 FACING ADDICTION IN AMERICA The Surgeon General’s Spotlight on Opioids. (n.d.).

7 The Opioid Threat in Pennsylvania. (2018). https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2018-10/PA%20Opioid%20Report%20Final%20FINAL.pdf 

8 Department of Health, U., Services, H., & of the Surgeon General, O. (n.d.). FACING ADDICTION IN AMERICA The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health.

10 Scholl, L., Seth, P., Kariisa, M., Wilson, N., & Baldwin, ; Grant. (2017). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths-United States, 2013-2017. Retrieved from https://surveillance.cancer.gov/joinpoint/.

11 Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages among Adolescents. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/report_3380/ShortReport-3380.html

12 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov

13 Cost/Benefit Research | Invest EAP. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from https://www.investeap.org/why-eap/cost-benefit-research

14 Youth Online: High School YRBS – Pennsylvania 2017 Results | DASH | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved October 4, 2019, from https://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Results.aspx?LID=PA

15 Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.findtreatment.samhsa.gov

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